Dark spots on the skin are typically caused by hyperpigmentation, the condition is called "Melasma".
Hyperpigmentation is an excessive production of melanin in a specific area due to several reasons like
- Hormone unbalance
- Excessive sun exposure
- Liver malfunction
- Skin damage (Scars, Acne etc.)
Hyperpigmentation may occur for several reasons, and sun exposure may trigger and always worsens the condition.
Genetic and sex are a big factor , for example , women and darker-skinned individuals/races are the most affected by this aesthetic problem.
When Melasma occurs during pregnancy, it's called Chloasma
To prevent or minimize Melasma:
Always wear sunscreen when you are exposed to sunlight , even only by reflection.
Keep yourself well hydrated
Improve your nutrition with supplement , vitamins, minerals and fibers.
Have a good fitness regime that makes you perspire eliminating toxins.